Primary Sources/   Secondary Sources

The Arab Spring, uprisings throughout the Arab world against long-standing dictators, reached Syria in March 2011 with popular demonstrations quickly spreading across the country that demanded the ouster of Bashar al-Assad, whose family has been in power since 1971.  Brutal repression of the protests quickly escalated into a full-blown civil war that has claimed more than 100,000 lives and brought superpowers and regional forces into conflict.  China and Russia have vetoed any efforts by the UN National Security Council to take action against Assad’s regime, which is also supported by Iran, Hezbollah and Palestinian militants.  The Free Syrian Army, a fragile coalition of armed forces committed to overthrowing al-Assad, has received support from the U.S. and other western governments, but also fight with Sunni extremists that are loyal to al-Qaeda and have declared jihad against the Shi’ite Muslims supporting Assad, which has limited foreign aid.  Syria’s large chemical weapons arsenal is a critical factor in the civil war that may necessitate foreign intervention.

Primary Sources

Government Documents/   Corporate Documents/   Speeches/   Interviews/   Letters and Emails/  Multi-Media

Government Documents

U.S. Senate.  Committee on Foreign Relations.  “Syria Transition Support Act of 2013”.  S.Rpt 113-79.  July 24, 2013.

“Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003”.  (Public Law 108-175, Dec. 12, 2003)

U.S. Senate.  113th Congress.  S. 960. “Syria Transition Support Act of 2013”.  May 15, 2013.

U.S. House of Representatives.  110th Congress. H.R. 2332.  “Syria Accountability and Liberation Act”.  May 15, 2007.

U.S. House of Representatives.  111th Congress.  H.R. 1206.  “Syria Accountability and Liberation Act”.  Feb. 26, 2009.

U.S. Senate.  110th Congress.  S. 2917.  “Syria Accountability and Liberation Act”.  April 24, 2008.

U.S. House Concurrent Resolution 312.  94th Congress.  “Concurrent Resolution Disapproving the Obligation of Middle East Special Requirements Funds for Certain Projects in Syria”.  June 17, 1975.

U.S. House Concurrent Resolution 257.  110th Congress.  “Concurrent Resolution Expressing Concern Regarding Arms Transfers to Iran and Syria by the Russian Federation and Entities in the Russian Federation”.  Nov. 13, 2007.

United Nations.  “Report on the Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons in the Ghouta Area of Damascus on 21 August 2013”.  Mission to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic.  Sept. 13, 2013.

Australia:  Parliament Library.  International Responses to the Syrian Uprising:  March 2011-June 2012.  July 13, 2012.

Hopkins, Rebecca.  Lebanon and the Uprising in Syria:  Issues for Congress.  Congressional Research Services:  CRS Report for Congress.  Feb. 2, 2012.

United Nations.  Draft Resolution on Syria Chemical Weapons.  Sept. 26, 2013.

Department of State.  Framework for the Elimination of Syrian Chemical Weapons.  Sept. 14 2013.

Organisation For the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons:  Executive Council.  “Decision The Russian Federation and the United States of America Destruction of Syrian Chemical Weapons”.  33rd Meeting.  Sept. 27, 2013.

Department of Treasury.  “Three Entities Targeted by Treasury for Supporting Syria’s WMD Proliferation”. Press Center. Jan. 4, 2007.

Nikitan, Mary, Kerr, Paul and Feickert, Andrew.  “Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress”.  Congressional Research Services. Sept. 30, 2013.

U.S. House of Representatives:  Committee on Foreign Affairs.  Syria:  Weighing the Obama Administration’s Response.  Sept. 4, 2013.

Corporate Documents


Mirzayanov, Vil.  “Former Chief of the Department of Technical Counterintelligence of GosNIIOKhT Gives His Opinion of Syria’s Russian Chemical Threat”.  CBRNe Convergence.  2012.

Haddad, Bassam, Heydemann, Steven and Ismail, Salwa.  “Syria’s Uprising”.  George Washington University:  Institute of Middle East Studies.  2012.


Hirsch, Jordan.  Interview with Former Syrian General Akil Hashem on the Uprising in Syria.  Foreign Affairs.  April 16, 2012.

Letters and Emails

The Syria Files.  WikiLeaks.  2006-2012.

Yazbek, Samar. A Woman in the Crossfire: Diaries of the Syrian Revolution. Haus Publishing. August 2012.

Dabbagh, Heba. Just Five Minutes Nine Years in The Prisons of Syria. Jan. 2007.


Map of Non-Violent Activity in the Syrian Uprising.  Syrian Nonviolence Movement.  July 6, 2013.

Syria Revolution Website

Photos:  Syrian Uprising Reaches Second Anniversary.  Denver Post.  March 15, 2013.

Inside the Syrian Uprising.  National Radio Project.  Jan 10, 2012.

Syrian Emergency Task Force

Syria: Space Image Atlas. General Organization of Remote Sensing. 1996.

The Federation of Syrian Chambers of Industry.  The Syrian Arab Republic.

Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology.  ISESCO Center for Promotion of Scientific Research.

Secondary Sources

Reports/   Books/   Articles/   Multi-Media/   General Resources


Abbas, Hassan.  “The Dynamics of Uprising in Syria”.  Brief No. 51:  Arab Reform Initiatives.  Oct. 19 2011.

Heydemann, Steven.  “Syria’s Uprising:  Sectarianism, Regionalisation, and State Order in the Levant”.  Fride:  Working Paper No. 119.  May 2013.

Al-Saleh, Assad.  “Dissecting an Evolving Conflict:  The Syrian Uprising and the Future of the Country”.  Institute for Social Policy and Understanding and the New America Foundation.  June 2013.

Friedman, David and Brom, Shlomo.  “The Chemical Weapons Crisis in Syria:  En Route to a Political Solution?”  Insight No. 466:  Institute for National Security Studies.  Sept. 16, 2013.

Cordesman, Anthony.  “Syria and Weapons of Mass Destruction”.  Center for Strategic and International Studies.  October 2000.

Hassan, Salah.  “Palestinians in Syria and the Syrian Uprising”.  Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies.  Oct. 2012.

Shoham, Dany.  “Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Is Disarmament Possible?”  Perspectives Paper 214:  The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies.  Sept. 24, 2013.

Doumani, F. and H. Musharrafiyeh. Syrian Arab Republic Country Report. Analysis for European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) Countries and the Russian Federation on social and economic benefits of enhanced environmental protection.  ARCADIS, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Ecologic Institute, Environmental Resources Management Ltd. and Metroeconomica Ltd.  Brussels. 2011.

Thomas Collelo, ed. Syria: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987.

Salisbury, Daniel. “Syria’s Chemical Weapons:  The Use of Illicit Procurement”.  Alpha:  Center for Science and Security Studies at King’s College, London.  Sept. 16, 2013.

Schwartz, Rachel.  Case Study:  Syria’s Chemical and Biological Weapons Program and the Use of These Weapons in the Syrian Civil War.  International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT):  Israel.  Aug. 21, 2013.

Galperin, Marquis-Boire, and Scott-Railton.  “Quantum of Surveillance: Familiar Actors and Possible False Flags in Syrian Malware Campaigns”.  Citizen Lab and Electronic Frontier Foundation.  Dec. 2013.

Murray, Robert and McKay, Alasdair eds.  Into the Eleventh Hour:  R2P, Syria and Humanitarianism in Crisis.  E-International Relations.  Jan. 2014.


Hall, M. Clement. The History of Syria: 1900-2012. Charles River Publishing. 2013.

Lesch, David. Syria: The Fall of the House of Assad. Yale University Press. 2012.

Williams, Charles et al. The Syria Policy Playbook (Policy Playbook Series). The Intelligence Community. September 2013.

van Dam, Nikolaos. The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society under Asad and the Ba’th Party. I.B. Tauris. June 2011.

Tabler, Andrew. In the Lion’s Den: An Eyewitness Account of Washington’s Battle with Syria. Chicago Review Press. September 2011.

Hashemi, Nader ed., Postel, Danny ed.The Syria Dilemma Boston Review Books: The MIT Press. September 2013.

Pierret, Thomas. Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution. Cambridge Middle East Studies: Cambridge Press. May 2013.

Lefevre, Raphael. Ashes of Hama: The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria. Oxford University Press. November 2013.

Starr, Stephen. Revolt in Syria: Eye-witness to the Uprising. Columbia University Press. August 2012.

Wieland, Carsten. Syria – A Decade of Lost Chances: Repression and Revolution from Damascus Spring to Arab Spring. Cune. March 2012.

Ziedah, Radwan. Power and Policy in Syria: Intelligence Services, Foreign Relations and Democracy in the Modern Middle East. I.B. Tauris. December 2012.

Lawson, Fred. Demystifying Syria. SOAS Middle East Issues: Saqi Books. Feb. 2010.

Seale, Patrick. Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East. University of California Press. Jan. 1990.

Kazimi, Nibras. Syria through Jihadist Eyes: A Perfect Enemy. Hoover Institution Press. April 2010.

Haddad, Bassam. Business Networks in Syria: The Political Economy of Authoritarian Resilience. Standford University Press. August 2012.

Perthes, Volker. Syria under Bashar al-Asad: Modernisation and the Limits of Change (Adelphi series). Routledge. July 2006.

Lawson, Fred. Global Security Watch – Syria. Praeger. Feb. 2013.

Heydemann, Steven. Authoritarianism in Syria: Institutions and Social Conflict, 1946-1970. Cornell University Press. August 1999.

Talhami, Ghada Hashem. Syria and the Palestinians. University Press of Florida. May 2001.

Zahler, Kathy. The Assads’ Syria. 21st Century Books. Aug. 2009.

Lesch, David. The New Lion of Damascus: Bashar al-Asad and Modern Syria. Yale University Press. Nov. 2005.

Cooke, Miriam. Dissident Syria: Making Oppositional Arts Official. Duke University Press. Aug. 2007.

Abd-Allah, Umar and Algar, Hamid. Islamic Struggle in Syria. Mizan Pr. Jan. 1983.

Khatib, Line. Islamic Revivalism in Syria: The Rise and Fall of Ba’thist Secularism. Routledge. Aug. 2011.

Quilliam, Neil. Syria and the New World Order. Ithaca Press. May 1999.


Shoham, Dany.  “Guile, Gas and Germs:  Syria’s Ultimate Weapons”.  Middle East Quarterly.  Vol. 9:  No. 3.  Summer 2002.

Katz, Mark.  “Putin’s Foreign Policy Towards Syria”.  George Mason University:  Department of Public and International Affairs.  2006.

Compilation of Coverage of the Syrian Uprising.  The Economist.  2006-2012.

Syria’s Uprising:  A Collection of Articles.  SiriaLibano.  2011-2012.

Ekmanian, Harout.  “Aleppo in the Syrian Uprising”.  Near East Quarterly.  June 26, 2012.

Haddad, Bassam.  “The Syrian Regime’s Business Backbone”.  Middle East Research and Information Project:  Vol. 42.  Spring 2012.

Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad and Svadkovsky, Oskar.  “Demography is Destiny in Syria”.  American Spectator.  Feb. 6, 2012.

“Chemical Weapons Propulsion Unit on Syrian Missile ‘Made in Siberia’, Says Russian Expert”.  The Siberian Times.  Sept. 18 2013.

“Defected Syrian General:  Assad will never cede chemical arsenal”. Jerusalem Post.  Oct. 2, 2013.

Jorisch, Avi.  “Chemical Belly of the Syrian Beast”.  al-Arabiya.  Oct. 22, 2013.

The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control.  “Syria Missile Milestones”.  The Risk Report.  Vol. 11 No. 5. Sept.-Oct. 2005.

Smith, Jefferey.  “Russian Site Eyed for Syrian Chemical Weapons Destruction”.  The Center for Public Integrity.  Sept. 17, 2013.

Sanger, Lehern, Gladstone.  “With World Watching, Syria Amassed Nerve Gas”.  New York Times.  Sept. 7, 2013.

Sanger, Schmitt, Rudoren.  “Israeli Strike into Syria Said to Damage Research Site”. New York Times.  Feb. 3, 2013.


Syria Tmeline:  (1961 to date) From Ba’ath Takeover to Syrian Uprising.  The Hindu.  July 6, 2012.

Syria Undercover.  Frontline:  PBS.  Nov. 8, 2011.

Syria Uprising:  A Family Saga.  PRI’s The World.  March 27, 2012.

The Women of Syria’s Uprising.  Aol On News.  Feb. 3, 2012.

Map of Syrian Chemical, Biological Weapons and Missile Sites.  Nuclear Threat Initiative.

General Resources

Syria-Country Profile.  Nuclear Threat Initiative.

Hans de Vriej.  Syria CW.  Scoop. It!

Strategic Research and Communication Center

Tinnes, Judith.  Literature on the Conflict in Syria (2011-Nov. 2013).  Perspectives on Terrorism.  Vol. 7 Issue 6.  Dec. 2013.