National Security Agency
The National Security Agency (NSA) was officially established in 1952 by Executive Order to monitor electronic and communication intelligence on foreign adversaries and provide communications security. In 1972, the NSA merged with the Central Security Services, the cryptological efforts of the armed forces, to establish a centralized Signals Intelligence (Signit) effort. NSA surveillance activity has been the subject of numerous scandals due to revelations that American citizens and ally governments have been the target of NSA surveillance.
Department of Defense: Office of the Inspector General. “Audit of the Requirements for the Trailblazer and ThinThread Systems”. Report No. 05-Intel-03. Project No. D2003AL-0100. Dec. 15 2004.
NSA. “Untangling the Web: A Guide to Internet Research”. Center for Digital Content. Feb. 28, 2007.
US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. “Exhibit A: Procedures Used by the National Security Agency for Trageting Non-United States Persons Reasonably Believed to be Located Outside the United States”. July 29, 2009.
US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Exhibit B: Minimization Procedures Used by the National Security Agency in Connection with Acquisitions of Foreign Intelligence”. July 29, 2009.
US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. “In RE Application of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for an Order Requiring the Production of Tangible Things From Verizon Busiess Network Service”. April 25, 2013.
NSA. Boundless Informant: Frequently Asked Questions”. Sept. 6, 2012.
Office of the Inspector General: NSA. “NSA Office of the Inspector General’s Review of the President’s Surveillance Program As Mandated in the FISA Amendments Act of 2008”. March 24, 2009.
Acquisition Resource Center: National Security Agency. Business Registry: T-Mobile USA, Inc. Sept. 28, 2011.
Acquisition Resource Center: National Security Agency. Kellogg Brown & Root Services Inc. Sept. 27, 2011.
Acquisition Resource Center: National Security Agency. Business Registry: Sprint Communications Company L.P. Sept. 28, 2011.
Acquisition Resource Center: National Security Agency. Business Registry: Microsoft Corporation. Sept. 28, 2011.
President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technology. “Liberty and Security in a Changing World”. Dec. 12, 2013.
NSA. “Commonly Used Administrative Forms: Released in Response to FOIA Request 42877B. Part A”. Freedom of Information Act Request submitted May 28, 2003 by Russ Kirk. NSA released the documents March 14, 2007. The Memory Hole published the documents July 28, 2008.
NSA. “Commonly Used Administrative Forms: Released in Response to FOIA Request 42877B. Part B.” Freedom of Information Act Request submitted May 28, 2003 by Russ Kirk. NSA released the documents March 14, 2007. The Memory Hole published the documents July 28, 2008.
Network Information Technology Research and Development Program. High Performance Community and Communications: Towards a National Information Infrastructure. NSA HPPC Program. 1994.
NSA. “NSA: Technology Transfer Program”. Jan. 15, 2009.
NSA: Information Assurance Directorate. “Global Information Grid Information Assurance Capability/Technology Roadmap”. Prepared by the IA Architecture Office. Oct. 26, 2004.
“Jewel v. NSA”. No. C: 08-cv-4373. N.D. Cal. Sept. 18, 2008
“Klayman v. Obama: Memorandum of Opinion”. Case 1:13-cv-00851-RJL. Dec. 16, 2013.
“ACLU v. Clapper”. Case 13-cv-3994. June 11, 2013.
NSA: Office of Corporate Assessments. “Superconducting Technology Assessments”. Aug. 2005.
U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Legislative Affairs. “Report on the National Security Agency’s Bulk Collection Programs Affected by USA Patriot Act Reauthorization”. Dec. 14, 2009.
The White House: Obama Administration. “Administration White Paper: Bulk Collection of Telephony Metadata Under Section 215 of the USA Patriot Act”. Aug. 9, 2013.
NSA. “Summary of DNR and DNI Co-Traveler Analytics”. Oct. 1, 2012.
White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet: The Administration’s Proposal for Ending the Section 215 Bulk Telephony Metadata Program. March 27 2014.
Facebook. Global Governance Requests Report. Nov. 14, 2013.
Microsoft. Law Enforcement Requests Report: 2012. March 21, 2013.
Microsoft. Law Enforcement Requests Report: 2013. Sept. 30, 2013.
Google. Transparency Report: User Data Requests. July 2009-June 2013.
Yahoo! Government Data Requests: United States. Sept. 6 2013.
Apple. Report on Government Information Requests. Nov. 5, 2013.
Responses Received from Wireless Carriers on Law Enforcement Requests. markey.senate.gov. 2013.
Speeches and Interviews
Letters and Emails
US Department of Justice: National Security Division. Memorandum for the Attorney General from Kenneth Wainstein, Assistant Attorney General National Security Division. “Proposed Amendment to Department of Defense Procedures to Permit the National Security Agency to Conduct Analysis of Communications Metadata Associated with Persons in the United States”. Nov. 20, 2007.
Director of National Intelligence. Memorandum from DNI James Clapper to Senator Ron Wyden. “Response to Letter regarding the Intelligece Community’s use of Section 215 to obtain telephony metadata”. 2013.
Greenwald, Glen. No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State Metropolitan Books. April 29, 2014.
Bamford, James. The Shadow Factory: The NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America Anchor. July 14, 2009.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency Anchor. April 30, 2002.
Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America’s Most Secret Intelligence Organization Penguin Books. Sept. 29, 1983.
Aid, Matthew. The Secret Sentry: The Untold History of the National Security Agency Bloomsbury Press. June 8, 2010.
Terry, Michael. The Setup: Memoirs of an NSA Security Operation, 2nd Edition. CreateSpace Independent Publishing. Sept. 9, 2012.
Rogers, Miles, Fuller and Dykstra. Security Assessment: Case Studies for Implementing the NSA IAM. Syngress. Jan. 1, 2004.
Rogers, Miles, Fuller, Hoagberg, Schack, Dykstra, Cunningham and Little. Network Security Evaluation Using the NSA IEM. Syngress. July 1, 2005.
Schneier, Bruce. Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. Wiley. Oct. 18, 1996.
Timeline of Edward Snowden’s Revelations. Al Jazeera America.