Lone Wolf

Lone Wolves

Primary Sources/   Secondary Sources

The lone wolf terrorist is an individual who perpetrates violent attacks against civilians.  The lone wolf may be inspired by a terrorist organization’s ideology and objectives but operates independently and outside of it.  Many mass murders executed by lone wolves in the United States have not been connected to any global terrorist threat, such as school shootings.  Lone Wolves pose one of the greatest threats to public safety because they are the hardest for security forces to detect.  This section contains primary and secondary documents about the threat lone wolves pose to national security.

Primary Sources

Government Documents/   Corporate Documents/   Speeches/   Interviews/   Letters and Emails/  Multi-Media

Government Documents

Liu, Edward.  “Amendements to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Extended Until June 1, 2015”.  Congressional Research Service.  June 16, 2011.

U.S. House of Representatives.  111th Congress.  “H.R. 6429: To Extend the Expiring Provisions in the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004”.  Nov. 18, 2010.

Corporate Documents


Tonning, Egil.  “Lone-Wolf Terrorism and the Extremist Psyche”.  The Centre for Fascist, Anti-Fascist and Post-Fascist Study:  Teesside University.

Michael, George.  “Lone Wolf Terror and the Rise of Leaderless Resistance”.  Westfield State University.  April 26, 2013.


Simmons, Jeffrey.  “Lone Wolf Terrorists”.  Disclose Truth TV2.  May 13, 2013.

Bridgeman, Edward.  “Surviving Lone Wolf Terrorist Attacks”.  Focus.  Oct. 8, 2012.

Carafano, James.  “Ask the Experts:  Are we seeing an increase in lone wolf terrorist attacks?”.  World Review.  May 29, 2013.

Eby, Charles.  “The Nation that Cried Lone Wolf”.  Viewpoints:  Center for Homeland Defense and Security.  September 7, 2012.

Letters and Emails


Hamm, Mark.  “Lone Wolf Terrorism in America:  Using Knowledge of Radicalization Pathways to Forge Preventive Strategies”.  Indiana State University.  May 10, 2013.

Secondary Sources

Reports/   Books/   Articles/   Multi-Media/   General Resources


Downing, Michael and Mayer, Matt.  “Preventing the Next ‘Lone Wolf’ Attack Requires Stronger Federal-State Capabilities”.  Backgrounder No. 2818:  The Heritage Foundation.  June 18 2013.

Pantucci, Raffaello.  “A Typology of Lone Wolves: Preliminary Analysis of Lone Islamist Terrorists”. The International Centre for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence.  March 2011.

Beau, Barnes.  “Confronting the One-Man Wolf Pack: Adapting Law Enforcement and Prosecution Responses to the Threat of Lone Wolf Terrorism”.  Boston University Law Review.  Vol. 92:  1613.  2012.

Bates, Rodger.  “Dancing with Wolves:  Today’s Lone Wolf Terrorists”.  The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology:  Vol. 4, Issue 1.  2012.

Phillips, Peter.  “The Theory of the Rise of the Lone Wolf Terrorist:  Diseconomies to Scale and Terrorism at the Smallest Scale of Production”.  Social Science Research Network.  May 2013.

“Lone-Wolf Terrorism”.  Institute voor Veiligheids-en Crisismanagement.  June 7, 2007.

Hamm, Mark.  “Lone Wolf Terrorism in America:  Forging a New Way of Looking at an Old Problem”.  Indiana State University.

Springer, Nathan.  “Patterns of Radicalization:  Identifying the Markers and Warning Signs of Domestic Lone Wolf Terrorists in Our Midsts”.  Thesis:  Naval Postgraduate School.  December 2009.


Simon, Jefferey.  Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat  Prometheus Books.  2013.

Springer, Nathan, Seager, Walter and Toppert, Kurtis.  Lone Wolf Domestic Terrorist.  Penny Hill Press.  2013.

Eby, Charles, Toppert, Kurtis and Seager Walter. Lone Wolf Domestic Terrorist.  Penny Hill Press.  2013.

Michael, George.  Lone Wolf Terror and the Rise of Leaderless Resistance.  Vanderbilt University Press.  2012.

Spaaij, Ramon. Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism: Global Patterns, Motivations and Prevention. Springer. 2012.

Peter, Phillips. In Pursuit of the Lone Wolf Terrorist: Investigative Economics and New Horizons for the Economic Analysis of Terrorism.  Nova Science Pub Inc. 2013.


Artiga, Vic. “Lone Wolf Terrorism”.  The Harbinger:  Halo Corp.  July 22, 2013.

Dunn, Matthew.  “Can We Stop the Lone Wolf Terrorist?”.  Huffington Post.  June 7, 2013.

Stanek, Stephen.  “Al Qa’eda Spurs on ‘Lone Wolf’ Terrorists.”  The National.  March 15, 2010.

Mehta, Aaron.  “DHS Report in 2009 Warned of ‘Lone Wolf’ Attacks”.  Center for Public Integrity.  January 10, 2011.

Ackerman, Spencer.  “DHS Crushed This Analyst for Warning about Far-Right Terror”.  Wired.  Aug. 7, 2012.


Kaczynski, Andrew.  “Obama Warned in 2011 that ‘Lone Wolf Terrorists’ were ‘Biggest Concern We Have'”.  BuzzFeed.  April 25, 2013.

“Lone Wolf”.  Patriot Debates:  American Bar Association.  2005.

General Resources

Marlatt, Greta.  “Lone Wolf Terrorism-A Brief Bibliography”.  Homeland Security Digital Library:  Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security.  December 2012.